- Chromatin Structure
- DNA exists in the condensed, chromatin form in order to fit into the nucleus.
- Negatively charged DNA loops twice around positively charged histone octamer to form nucleosome “bead.”
- Histones are rich in the amino acids lysine and arginine.
- H1 binds to the nucleosome and to “linker DNA,” thereby stabilizing the chromatin fiber.
- H1 is the only histone that is not in the nucleosome core.
- In mitosis, DNA condenses to form chromosomes.
- DNA and histone synthesis occur during S Phase.
- HYF for exam – The single finding of high autoantibody titers to histones, without any other autoantibodies, is characteristic of drug-induced lupus. The most commonly implicated drugs are procainamide, hydralazine and isoniazid.
In DNA tertiary structure, what is a histone octamer?
a) A complex consisting of eight positively charged histone proteins (two of each H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) that aid in the packaging of DNA
b) A complex consisting of eight negatively charged histone proteins (two of each H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) that aid in the packaging of DNA
c) A complex consisting of nine positively charged histone proteins (H1 and two of each H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) that aid in the packaging of DNA.
d) A complex consisting of nine negatively charged histone proteins (H1 and two of each H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) that aid in the packaging of DNA.
Which statement is false?
A) In eukaryotes, histones are poorly conserved.
B) There are at least five different classes of histones.
C) Histones are richer in lysine and arginine residues than most other proteins.
D) The 30nm fiber form of chromatin is more compact than the beads on a string form.
A core nucleosomes is composed of (choose the best answer)
A) two copies each of histone H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 and 147 bp of DNA
B) two copies each of histone H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 and 1470 bp of DNA.
C) four copies each of histone H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 and 147 bp of DNA.
D) four copies each of histone H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 and 1470 bp of DNA.
When histone H1 is incorporated into a nucleosome
A) the nucleosome is about to be moved by a remodeling enzyme.
B) it means that replication of the DNA has just occured.
C) it increases the probability that condensation of the chromatin will occur.
D) it means that the underlying DNA is probably a core promoter.
In vitro, the rate of transcription from DNA is
A) higher when histones are present than when histones are absent.
B) lower when histones are present than when histones are absent.
C) proceeds in the wrong direction unless histones are present
Where would you most likely find chromatin in the beads on a string conformation?
B) Actively transcribed chromatin
C) Silenced chromatin
D) Deacetylated chromatin
E) 30 nm fiber chromatin
- Condensed, transcriptionally inactive,sterically inaccessible.
- HeteroChromatinis Highly Condensed.
- Less condensed, transcriptionally active, sterically accessible.
- What is “truly transcribed.” Is Euwhich is true
- DNA methylation
- Template strand cytosine and adenine are methylated in DNA replication, which allows mismatch repair enzymes to distinguish between old and new strands in prokaryotes
- DNA methylation at CpG islands represses transcription.
- Histone methylation
- Usually reversibly represses DNA transcription, but can activate it in some cases.
- Histone Methylation makes DNA Mute.
- CpG Methylation makes DNA Mute.
- Histone acetylation
- Relaxes DNA coiling, allowing for transcription
- Histone Acetylation makes DNA Active
Two potential devices that eukaryotic cells use to regulate transcription are
a. DNA methylation and histone amplification.
b. DNA amplification and histone methylation.
c. DNA acetylation and methylation.
d. DNA methylation and histone acetylation.
e. histone amplification and DNA acetylation.
DNA is found in the condensed chromatin form in order to fit into the nucleus. This video shows the nucleosome core and how the DNA is wrapping around the histone octamer.
DNA and Chromatin Regulation
Chromatin, Histones and Modifications, Rate My Science
Chromatin is the complex basis of DNA and protein that makes up chromosomes. Changes in chromatin structure are affected by chemical modifications of histone proteins such as methylation (DNA and proteins) and acetylation (proteins), and by non-histone, DNA-binding proteins.
This is a short claymation showing the steps involved in DNA packaging.
Chromosomes, Chromatids, Chromatin, etc
The vocabulary of DNA: chromosomes, chromatids, chromatin, transcription, translation, and replication
DNA Structure and Chromatin