• Giardia lamblia
      • causes by the infection of the small intestine
      • a single-celled flagellate (MCQ)
      • most common of all intestinal flagellates.
      • do not lead to invasive damage to the gastrointestinal tract (MCQ)
      • patient may be asymptomatic, but is able to transmit the organism by the fecal-oral route.
      • Both trophozoites and cysts may be found in the stool sample,
      • Trophozoites of G. lamblia
        • oval or pearshaped (MCQ)
        • likened to a “monkey face” with two nuclei as eyes that contain central karyosomes which lack peripheral chromatin. (MCQ)
      • G. lamblia cyst
        • the most infective stage(MCQ)
        • Cysts are the most diagnostic stage found in a laboratory sample(MCQ)
        • four median bodies are present in the mature cyst
      • Symptoms
        • water and smelly diarrhea, abdominal cramps, flatulence, and anorexia, Vitamin deficiencies, particularly the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, along with folic acid, (MCQ)
        • Weight loss and malabsorption syndrome as well as steatorrhea (fatty stools)
      • Life Cycle
        • The cyst form of Giardia lamblia is the stage that causes infection when ingested
        • cyst is broken down by the acid in the stomach
        • trophozoite emerges from the cyst wall in the duodenum.
        • rapid replication makes it possible to experience a heavy infection only days following an initial infection.
        • The trophozoite obtains necessary nutrition from the intestinal lumen (tube opening) by a process called pinocytosis
        • wet mount is the most common method of identification. (MCQ)
      • Disease Transmission
        • City water systems may also harbor this parasite
          • it is impervious to chlorine (MCQ)
          • only filtering will remove the organisms, which is not readily practiced in water treatment plants. (MCQ)
        • Contaminated foods are also implicated, such as raw vegetables
        • oral-anal sexual practices (MCQ)
        • male homosexual contacts
        • domestic cats(MCQ)
      • Laboratory Diagnosis
      • The trophozoite stage of G. lamblia
        • most commonly found stage
        • described as a characteristic pear or teardrop shape. (MCQ)
        • These trophozoites are highly motile and move in a twisting and erratic manner, similar to that of a falling leaf. (MCQ)
      • One other important anatomical feature of G. lamblia is an adhesive disc which is difficult to visualize as an organelle (small organ) on the ventral side of the organism. (MCQ)
      • Sometimes identification of G. lamblia is necessary by obtaining a biopsy of the small intestine or from the examination of duodenal fluid.
      • String test for giardiasis(MCQ)
        • Another method requires the patient to swallow a gelatin capsule attached by a nylon string, the end of which is taped to the patient’s cheek.
        • After 4 to 8 hours the capsule is withdrawn and the bile-stained mucous on the end of the string where the capsule is attached is microscopically examined by either a wet mount or by permanent staining.

    Giardiasis – Giardia Lamblia
    Nuevo: Articulo Sobre Salud “GIARDIASIS”
    Movie from Idexx about Giardia
    Giardiasis (popularly known as beaver fever) is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia (also sometimes called Giardia intestinalis and Giardia duodenalis). The giardia organism inhabits the digestive tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animal species, as well as humans. It is the most common pathogenic parasitic infection in humans worldwide; in 2013, there were about 280 million people worldwide with symptomatic giardiasis.
    Video que presenta una breve reseña del diagnóstico de Giardiasis (Giardia lamblia), para la clase de laboratorio de Parasitología. Saludos.
    Giardiasis Oxygen Out