Giardiasis

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    • Giardia lamblia
      • causes by the infection of the small intestine
      • a single-celled flagellate (MCQ)
      • most common of all intestinal flagellates.
      • do not lead to invasive damage to the gastrointestinal tract (MCQ)
      • patient may be asymptomatic, but is able to transmit the organism by the fecal-oral route.
      • Both trophozoites and cysts may be found in the stool sample,
      • Trophozoites of G. lamblia
        • oval or pearshaped (MCQ)
        • likened to a “monkey face” with two nuclei as eyes that contain central karyosomes which lack peripheral chromatin. (MCQ)
      • G. lamblia cyst
        • the most infective stage(MCQ)
        • Cysts are the most diagnostic stage found in a laboratory sample(MCQ)
        • four median bodies are present in the mature cyst
      • Symptoms
        • water and smelly diarrhea, abdominal cramps, flatulence, and anorexia, Vitamin deficiencies, particularly the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, along with folic acid, (MCQ)
        • Weight loss and malabsorption syndrome as well as steatorrhea (fatty stools)
      • Life Cycle
        • The cyst form of Giardia lamblia is the stage that causes infection when ingested
        • cyst is broken down by the acid in the stomach
        • trophozoite emerges from the cyst wall in the duodenum.
        • rapid replication makes it possible to experience a heavy infection only days following an initial infection.
        • The trophozoite obtains necessary nutrition from the intestinal lumen (tube opening) by a process called pinocytosis
        • wet mount is the most common method of identification. (MCQ)
      • Disease Transmission
        • City water systems may also harbor this parasite
          • it is impervious to chlorine (MCQ)
          • only filtering will remove the organisms, which is not readily practiced in water treatment plants. (MCQ)
        • Contaminated foods are also implicated, such as raw vegetables
        • oral-anal sexual practices (MCQ)
        • male homosexual contacts
        • domestic cats(MCQ)
      • Laboratory Diagnosis
      • The trophozoite stage of G. lamblia
        • most commonly found stage
        • described as a characteristic pear or teardrop shape. (MCQ)
        • These trophozoites are highly motile and move in a twisting and erratic manner, similar to that of a falling leaf. (MCQ)
      • One other important anatomical feature of G. lamblia is an adhesive disc which is difficult to visualize as an organelle (small organ) on the ventral side of the organism. (MCQ)
      • Sometimes identification of G. lamblia is necessary by obtaining a biopsy of the small intestine or from the examination of duodenal fluid.
      • String test for giardiasis(MCQ)
        • Another method requires the patient to swallow a gelatin capsule attached by a nylon string, the end of which is taped to the patient’s cheek.
        • After 4 to 8 hours the capsule is withdrawn and the bile-stained mucous on the end of the string where the capsule is attached is microscopically examined by either a wet mount or by permanent staining.


    Giardiasis – Giardia Lamblia
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    Movie from Idexx about Giardia
    Giardiasis
    Giardiasis (popularly known as beaver fever) is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia (also sometimes called Giardia intestinalis and Giardia duodenalis). The giardia organism inhabits the digestive tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animal species, as well as humans. It is the most common pathogenic parasitic infection in humans worldwide; in 2013, there were about 280 million people worldwide with symptomatic giardiasis.
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    Video que presenta una breve reseña del diagnóstico de Giardiasis (Giardia lamblia), para la clase de laboratorio de Parasitología. Saludos.
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