Mitral valve prolapse

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  • Mitral valve prolapse (mitral valve prolapse)
  • Etiology
    • Most commonvalvular disorder (MCQ)
    • Idiopathic, rheumatic heart disease, ischemic heart disease, ASD, orMarfan’s syndrome(MCQ)
    • More common in women (90% of cases)(MCQ)
    • Genetic predisposition (can be inherited as an autosomal dominant

     trait)

    • Normal variant
  • Signs and symptoms
    • Mostly asymptomatic
    • Atypical chest pain(MCQ)
    • Shortness of breath (SOB)
    • Fatigue
  • Diagnosis/signs
    • Mid-systolic click; followed by late-systolic, high-pitched murmur (if mild regurgitation is present also)(MCQ)
    • Best heard at apex
    • S3 sometimes present(MCQ)
    • Wide splitting of S2(MCQ)
    • Echocardiography demonstrates diseased valve.
  • TREATMENT
    • Prophylaxis for endocarditisis required(MCQ)
      • if a murmur is audible
      • ifmyxomatous leaflets
    • Vigilant follow-up
  • Clinical Vignette in MD Entrance :
    • A young woman presents with atypical chest pain and mid-systolic click.
    • Clinical diagnosis Mitral valve prolapse.(MCQ)
  • Clinical pearls :
    • Often associated with skeletal changes (straight back, pectus, scoliosis) or hyperreflexivity of joints.(MCQ)
    • The smaller the LV chamber, the greater the degree of prolapse, and thus auscultatory findings are often accentuated in the standing position.(MCQ)
    • Mitral prolapse is often associated with aortic root disease, and any evidence for a dilated aorta by chest radiography should prompt either CT or MRI angiography.
    • -Blockers in low doses (MCQ)
      • used to treat the hyperadrenergic state when present
      • are usually satisfactory for treatment of arrhythmias.
    • Mitral valve repair is favored over valve replacement
    • Stitching of the leaflets together to create a double orifice mitral valve is also used at times (Alfieri procedure)(MCQ)


Mitral Valve Prolapse and Mitral Regurgitation – Animation and Narration by Cal Shipley, M.D.
Mitral Valve Prolapse and Mitral Regurgitation. Review of mitral valve anatomy and function, including papillary muscle structure and function
Cardiologist (Heart Doctor) explains Mitral Valve Prolapse and Regurgitation
Hi, I’m Dr. Randy Martin and I’m a cardiologist. So I thought it would be interesting if I could actually teach you a little bit about the heart.

Mitral valve regurgitation and mitral valve prolapse
What Is Mitral Valve Prolapse? Mitral Valve Prolapse FAQ
What is mitral valve prolapse? Mitral valve prolapse is a very common heart condition. Most patients with mitral valve prolapse have a mild case and do not require surgery. When the situation is more severe, mitral valve prolapse surgery may be an option.
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Harvard Medical School video describes what mitral valve prolapse and how it is treated
Mitral Valve Repair
Recently completed therapy for endocarditis of the Mitral Valve
Complicated by a small hemorrhagic stroke following therapy
Now with worsening Mitral regurgitation and left ventricular enlargement
Controversies in Mitral Repair