Whipple disease

    • Whipple disease
      • multivisceral
      • Tropheryma whippelii is causative organism (MCQ)
        • Gram-positive actinomycete
      • Why lymphadenopathy occur in Whipple disease
        • organism-laden macrophages accumulate within the small intestinal lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes, causing lymphatic obstruction. (MCQ)
      • Why lymphadenopathy occur in Whipple disease malabsorptive diarrhea occur in Whipple disease
        • malabsorptive diarrhea is due to impaired lymphatic transport. (MCQ)
      • The morphologic hallmark is a dense accumulation of distended, foamy macrophages in the small intestinal lamina propria (MCQ)
      • The macrophages contain periodic acid–Schiff (PAS)-positive, diastase-resistant granules that represent lysosomes stuffed with partially digested bacteria (MCQ)
      • Intact rod-shaped bacilli can also be identified by electron microscopy (MCQ)
      • Whipple disease vs intestinal tuberculosis (MCQ)
        • infiltrate of foamy macrophages is present in both
        • in both diseases the organisms are PAS-positive.
        • mycobacteria stain positively with acid-fast stain while T. whippelii do not.
      • Shows shaggy gross appearance to the mucosal surface. (MCQ)
        • Occurs due to  villous expansion caused by the dense macrophage infiltrate
      • Shows endoscopic detection of white to yellow mucosal plaques(MCQ)
        • Occurs due to lymphatic dilatation and mucosal lipid deposition
      • In Whipple disease, bacteria-laden macrophages can accumulate within mesenteric lymph nodes, synovial membranes of affected joints, cardiac valves, the brain
      • Clinical triad of Whipple disease (MCQ)
        • diarrhea,
        • weight loss,
        • malabsorption.
      • Extraintestinal symptoms
        • can exist for months or years before malabsorption
        • include arthritis, arthralgia, fever, lymphadenopathy, and neurologic, cardiac, or pulmonary disease.

    USMLE: What you need to know about Whipple’s Disease by usmleTeam
    I have discussed only important points you need to know for usmle examination, hope it will benefit you thank you.
    Whipple Disease
    Malabsorption syndrome (food not being used) caused by infection with an agent who has not yet been isolated.
    The Whipple Procedure
    Dr. James Lee, Assistant Professor of Surgery at Columbia, guides patients through the Whipple Procedure, which is also known as a pancreaticoduodenectomy. This procedure is utilized for a variety of diseases of the pancreas.
    In Vivo Diagnosis and Characterization of Whipple’s Disease
    Abstract: Whipple’s disease is a rare multisystemic infection caused by the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei. Endoscopic findings are mostly limited and include pale yellow, shaggy mucosa with intermittent, superficial, and erythematous eroded patches of the duodenum.
    Whipples Disease
    intestinal Lipodystrophy
    What is the Whipple Procedure – Mayo Clinic
    Dr. Horacio Asbun, Mayo Clinic in Florida, explains the Whipple procedure using this animated graphic of a pancreas. Cancer of the pancreas affects 45,000 people every year in the U.S., and it is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The five-year overall survival rate if a tumor is detected early and surgically removed is 22 percent, versus 6 percent without early detection and surgery.